• The Battle of Cuito Cuanavale in 1987/88 was an important episode in the Angolan Civil War (1975 to 2002). Between 9 September and 7 October 1987, the Armed Forces for the Liberation of Angola (FAPLA), in an attempt to destroy the guerrillas of UNITA (the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola), advanced into southeastern Angola from Cuito Cuanavale to attack UNITA at Mavinga. The South African Defence Force (SADF), whose primary objective was to protect UNITA in southern Angola in order to prevent the South West African People's Organization (SWAPO) from using the region to launch attacks into South West Africa, once more intervened on UNITA’s behalf. The Battle of Cuito Cuanavale, which took place over about six months, was at that time the biggest battle on African soil since World War II Both sides claimed victory in the battle The Angolan Civil War played out against the backdrop of the Cold War struggle between the Soviet Union and the United States. Both superpowers tried to influence the outcome of the civil war through proxies. Weapons The SADF used a mix of British, French, Israeli, captured Soviet and indigenously developed weaponry. Their allies, UNITA used a mix of Soviet and South African-supplied weaponry. The United States covertly supplied UNITA guerillas with Stingers for anti-aircraft defense. The South Africans were hampered by United Nations Security Council Resolution 418, an international arms embargo that prevented them from acquiring materiel such as modern aircraft. The Cubans and FAPLA were armed with Soviet weaponry. Extracted from Cuba An African Odyssey 2007 Part 1 of 2

  • The Angolan War of Independence (1961–1974) began as an uprising against forced cotton cultivation, and became a multi-faction struggle for the control of Portugal's Overseas Province of Angola among three nationalist movements and a separatist movement. The war ended when a leftist military coup in Lisbon in April 1974 overthrew Portugal's Estado Novo regime, and the new regime immediately stopped all military action in the African colonies, declaring its intention to grant them independence without delay. It was a guerrilla war in which the Portuguese Armed Forces waged a counter-insurgency campaign against armed groups mostly dispersed across sparsely populated areas of the vast Angolan countryside. Many atrocities were committed by all forces involved in the conflict. In Angola, after the Portuguese had stopped the war, an armed conflict broke out among the nationalist movements. This war formally came to an end in January 1975 when the Portuguese government, the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), and the National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA) signed the Alvor Agreement.

  • Land Of No Hope (1999): A moving and insightful feature on the Angolan Civil War.

  • A look at events and personalities that took place in Southern Africa during the 1970's; Mozambique, Rhodesia & South Africa.

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